Ecological Restoration in the Charco del Indio Nature Reserve


Strategy to safeguard an essential biological corridor in the Central Andes of Colombias

By: Carlos Andrés Salazar Salguero (, Biologist, Birdwatching guide and Director of the Charco del Indio Nature Reserve.

In the municipality of Villahermosa, department of Tolima, Colombia, there is a crucial biological corridor connecting tropical rainforest and moorland ecosystems (900 – 4,500 meters above sea level –m.a.s.l.–). It is the basin of the Azufrado River. Their waters originate from the glacial melting of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano and join downstream with hundreds of micro-basins, such as the La Esmeralda Stream.

This stream is characterised by its crystalline waters –historically frequented by ancestral cultures–, dozens of waterfalls, pools and isolated fragments of primary forest. La Esmeralda and its forests are home to high biodiversity, including many endemic Colombian species, some threatened with extinction. The lack of connectivity between the forest fragments endangers the functionality of this critical biological corridor.

Large biological corridor of the Azufrado River basin connecting the tropical rainforest and the moorland ecosystems in Villahermosa, Tolima, Colombia. Photo: Carlos Andrés Salazar Salguero.

In response to this challenge, the Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) FUNCOMA ( supported the creation of the Charco del Indio civil society nature reserve. Located 2.000 m.a.s.l., at a critical point of the biological corridor, this reserve recovers five hectares of pastureland through ecological restoration supported by the SELVA Foundation, the Villahermosa town hall and the CELSIA company. The local community accompanied several planting sessions, seeding more than 3,000 trees of 33 native species.

The restoration of five hectares of pastureland in a critical area of the biological corridor began with the community planting sessions in the Charco del Indio nature reserve. Photo: FUNCOMA.

Thanks to this reserve, many species have a home and an assured corridor in their passage to other ecosystems. FUNCOMA’s wildlife-monitoring programme has shown an increase in the number of endemic birds in Charco del Indio, most of which are vulnerable to extinction. Among them are the Yellow-headed brushfinch sparrow (Atlapetes flaviceps), the Tolima blossomcrown hummingbird (Anthocephala berlepshi), the Crested ant-tanager (Habia cristata) and the Tolima dove (Leptotila conoveri).

Other species recorded are those that make large boreal migrations, such as the Cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea); local migrants, such as the Yellow-eared parrot  (Ognorhynchus icterotis), which is also vulnerable to extinction; and the Torrent duck (Merganetta armata), which depends on good water quality to find food. In amphibians, the reserve is home to the glassfrog (Centrolene antioquiense) and the brown salamander (Bolitoglossa ramosi), both endemic to the Central Cordillera of Colombia.

The Charco del Indio reserve also offers quality nature and adventure tourism services. It has thematic trails, fauna monitoring stations, botanical labels, strange rock formations, indigenous settlements, murals, spots for hiding photography, a restaurant, bird watching services and nature guides. In this way, Charco del Indio is seen as a centre that promotes conservation and environmental awareness, research and pre-Columbian history and contributes to the development of sustainable and cultural tourism in the north of Tolima, Colombia.

Jornadas de educación ambiental con los estudiantes de los colegios locales de Villahermosa, Tolima. Estas actividades generan sensibilización y conciencia ambiental con niños y adolescentes. Fuente: FUNCOMA.

Sergio Esteban Lozano Baez

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Supporting partners

Under the banner of Generation Restoration, the Youth in Landscapes Initiative (YIL) and the Global Landscapes Forum (GLF) launched the Restoration Stewards program in 2020 to support and highlight the work of six young restoration practitioners and their teams, dubbed ‘Restoration Stewards’. The year-long program provides funding, mentorship, and training to deepen the impact of these projects.
In 2021, the Restoration Stewards and their teams will be supported to further develop their project and will become ambassadors at both global and local levels. Globally, the Restoration Stewards will share their journey in a series of vlogs and blogs documenting their stories of inspiration and challenges. Locally, they will spark a restoration movement, creating pathways to connect, share, learn, and act for more sustainable landscapes.